espanto

                                     Espanto

100mim tem escolhido para cada mês um tema. Foi o mês de Robert Bresson, de Herberto Helder, dos ”Queen”, Saramago, Paul Éluard, etc. E Manoel de Oliveira está sempre presente. Julho foi dedicado à Educação. Em Agosto foram as Bombásticas na praia, na sua 2ªedição. Outubro foi o mês dos roubos no FB que gosto. O mês de Novembro foi dedicado ao DESASSOSSEGO. O de Janeiro ao tema da paz. Em Fevereiro “o beijo”. Março sobre a “o que é a oração.” Junho foi o mês sobre  fotografias marcantes. Para Julho escolhemos: SOL. Setembro foi mês de UVAS. E Outubro? Esqueci-me. Sou um “stupore”… em Outubro. Mês Espanto! E começo com Aristóteles.

Aristóteles, Metafísica, A,  I  (Translated by W. D. Ross), onde ele reconhece que é o espanto que leva a conhecer.

“ALL men by nature desire to know. An indication of this is the delight we take in our senses; for even apart from their usefulness they are loved for themselves; and above all others the sense of sight. For not only with a view to action, but even when we are not going to do anything, we prefer seeing (one might say) to everything else. The reason  is that this, most of all the senses, makes us know and brings to light many differences between things.

“By nature animals are born with the faculty of sensation, and from sensation memory is produced in some of them, though not in others. And therefore the former are more intelligent and apt at learning than those which cannot remember; those which are incapable  of hearing sounds are intelligent though they cannot be taught, e.g. the  bee, and any other race of animals that may be like it; and those which besides memory have this sense of hearing can be taught.

“The animals other than man live by appearances and memories, and have but little of connected experience; but the human race lives also by art and reasonings. Now from memory experience is produced in men; for the several memories of the same thing produce finally the capacity for a single experience. And experience seems pretty much like science and art, but really science  and art come to men through experience; for ‘experience made art’, as Polus says, ‘but inexperience luck.’ Now art arises when from many notions gained  by experience one universal judgement about a class of objects is produced. For to have a judgement that when Callias was ill of this disease this  did him good, and similarly in the case of Socrates and in many individual  cases, is a matter of experience; but to judge that it has done good to all persons of a certain constitution, marked off in one class, when they were ill of this disease, e.g. to phlegmatic or bilious people when burning with fevers-this is a matter of art.”

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